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积淀的住我们曾经有过的记忆和经历。

 
 
 

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文言故事集萃  

2011-11-28 17:53:12|  分类: 古代汉语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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文言故事集萃

 

《二雀救友》

【原文】

某氏園中,有古木,鵲巢其上,孵卵將雛。一日,鵲徊翔其上,悲鳴不已。頃之,有群鵲鳴漸近,集古木上,忽有二鵲對鳴,若相語狀,俄兒揚去。未幾,一鸛(ɡuàn橫空而來,咯咯有聲,二鵲亦尾其後。群鵲見而噪,若有所訴。鸛又咯咯作聲,似允所請。鸛于古木上盤旋三匝(zā,遂俯衝鵲巢,銜一赤蛇吞之。群鵲喧舞,若慶且謝也。蓋二鵲招鸛援友也。

【注释】①鹳:一种较凶猛的鸟。②匝:圈。③盖:原来是。

【译文】

某人的花园里有一株古老的树,上面有喜鹊筑的巢,母鹊孵出来的小鹊已快成为幼鸟了。一天,一只喜鹊在巢上徘徊飞翔,不停地发出悲伤的嚎叫。一会儿,成群的喜鹊都渐渐闻声赶来,聚集在树上,两只喜鹊仍然在树上对叫,像在对话一样,不一会儿又扬长而去。有过了一会儿,一只鹳从空中飞来,发出咯咯的声音,两只喜鹊跟随在它后面。喜鹊们见了便喧叫起来,好像有话要说。鹳又发出咯咯的叫声,似乎在答应鹊的请求。鹳在古树上盘旋了三圈,突然向鹊巢冲了下来,叼出一只红蛇并吞了下去。喜鹊们欢呼了起来,像在庆祝,并向鹳致谢。原来两只喜鹊是去找鹳来救朋友的啊!

 

《司马光破瓮救友》

【原文】

光(司马光)生七歲凜然(严肃庄重的样手)如成人聞講《左氏春秋》(又称《春秋左氏傳》相傳是春秋時期左丘明撰)愛之(指代《左氏春秋》)退(回去)為家人講即了(懂得)其大指(主要意思)自是(从此)手不釋(放下)(甚至)不知饑渴寒暑群兒戲於()庭(院子)一兒登甕(指失足)跌沒(沉没)水中眾皆棄去(抛下那小孩逃去了)光持()石擊甕破之(指代瓮)水迸(涌出)兒得活(选自《宋史》)

【译文】

司马光七岁的时候,就好象成年人一样稳重,听到别人讲述<左传>后,非常喜欢,放学后就自己讲给家里人听,对讲述人的理解非常透彻,从此后就很喜欢看书,甚至连饥渴寒暑都毫不在意。和一群儿童在庭院里面玩耍,一个小孩爬大缸子,失足掉进缸里积水中,大家都吓跑了,司马光却拿起石头把缸子打碎,缸里的水流出来,小孩子得救了。

 

《孙叔敖杀两头蛇》

【原文】

孫叔敖為嬰兒是,出遊,見兩頭蛇,殺而埋之。歸而泣。其母問其故,叔敖對曰:聞見兩頭之蛇者死,向者吾見之,恐去母而死也。其母曰:蛇今安在?”曰:恐他人又見,殺而埋之矣。其母曰:吾聞有陰德者天報以福,汝不死也。

【译文】

孙叔敖是楚国的国相, 国家发展得好有他的功劳,楚国人称赞道。孙叔敖小的时候,曾经到外面游玩,看见一条两个头的蛇,就杀了蛇并把蛇埋了,一边哭一边回家。母亲问他原因。叔敖回答说:我听说见了两头蛇的人一定会死,现在我见到了,害怕我抛下母亲先死了。母亲说:蛇现在在哪里?”回答说:我害怕别的人又见到这条蛇,已经把它杀了并埋了起来。母亲说:你积了阴德,神一定会保佑你的,不要担心。

 

《小而不畏虎》

【原文】

有婦人晝日置二小兒沙上而浣衣于水者。虎自山上馳來,婦人倉皇沉水避之。二小兒戲沙上自若。虎熟視久之,至以首抵觸,庶幾其一懼;而兒癡,竟不知。虎亦尋卒去。意虎之食人,先被之以威;而不懼之人,威亦無所施歟!

【译文】

有个妇人白天将两个小孩留在沙滩上,自己去水边洗衣服。老虎从山上跑来,那妇人慌忙潜入水里躲避老虎,两个小孩仍然在沙滩上自在嬉戏。老虎盯着他们看了很久,甚至用头顶触碰他们,希望他们会有些害怕,可是小孩傻乎乎地不知道怎么回事,老虎最后也就离开了。估计老虎吃人必是先向人显示它的威风,但遇到不怕老虎的人,它的威风没有地方施展,也就吃不成了。

 

《轮扁斫轮》

【原文】

世之所贵道者,书也。书不过语,语有贵也。语之所贵者,意也,意有所随。意之所随者,不可以言传也,而世因贵言传书。世虽贵之,我犹不足贵也,为其贵非其贵也。故视而可见者,形与色也;听而可闻者,名与声也。悲夫!世人以形色名声为足以得彼之情。夫形色名声,果不足以得彼之情,则知者不言,言者不知,而世岂识之哉!

桓公读书于堂上,轮扁斫轮于堂下,释椎凿而上,问桓公曰:敢问:公之所读者,何言邪?公曰:圣人之言也。曰:圣人在乎?公曰:已死矣。曰:然则君之所读者,古人之糟粕已夫!桓公曰:寡人读书,轮人安得议乎!有说则可,无说则死!轮扁曰:臣也以臣之事观之。斫轮,徐则甘而不固,疾则苦而不入,不徐不疾,得之于手而应于心,口不能言,有数存乎其间。臣不能以喻臣之子,臣之子亦不能受之于臣,是以行年七十而老斫轮。古之人与其不可传也死矣,然则君之所读者,古人之糟粕已夫!

【译文】

世人所贵重的道,载见于书籍,书籍不过是语言,语言自有它可贵之处。语言所可贵的是(在于它表现出的)意义,意义自有它指向之处。意义的指向之处是不可以用言语传达的,而世人因为注重语言而(记载下来)传之于书。世人虽然贵重书籍,我还是觉得不足贵重,因为这是贵重(那)并不(值得)贵重的。本来,可以看得见的是形状和色彩;可以听得见的是名称和声音。可悲呀!世人以为从形状、色彩、名称、声音就足以获得那大道的实际情形。可是形状、色彩、名称、声音实在是不足以表达那大道的实际情形的。知道(大道)的不说,说的又不知道(大道),那世人又岂能认识它呢!

齐桓公在堂上读书,轮扁在堂下砍削(木材)制作车轮,(轮扁)放下椎凿的工具走上堂来,问齐桓公说:请问,公所读的是什么书呀?桓公说:是(记载)圣人之言(的书)。又问:圣人还在吗?桓公说:已经死去了。轮扁说:那么您所读的书不过是圣人留下的糟粕罢了。桓公说:我读书,做轮子的匠人怎么能议论?说出道理就可以放过你,没有道理可说就要处死。轮扁说:我是从我做的事情看出来的。砍削(木材)制作轮子,(榫头)做得过于宽缓,就会松动而不牢固,做得太紧了,又会滞涩而难以进入。(我做得)不宽不紧,得心应手,口里说不出来,但其中自有度数分寸在。我不能明白地告诉我的儿子,我儿子也不能从我这里得到(做轮子的经验和方法),所以我已七十岁了,还在(独自)做车轮。古代人和他们所不能言传的东西都(一起)死去了,那么您读的书不过就是古人留下的糟粕罢了!

提示;轮扁斫轮而不能说出斫轮的道理,这不是言不尽意吗?

 


 

 

 

梦游天姥吟留别

【唐】李白

 

海客谈瀛洲, 烟涛微茫信难求。

越人语天姥, 云霓明灭或可睹。

天姥连天向天横, 势拔五岳掩赤城;

天台四万八千丈, 对此欲倒东南倾。

我欲因之梦吴越, 一夜飞渡镜湖月。

湖月照我影, 送我至剡溪;

谢公宿处今尚在, 渌水荡漾清猿啼。

脚著谢公屐, 身登青云梯。

半壁见海日, 空中闻天鸡。

千岩万壑路不定, 迷花倚石忽已暝。

熊咆龙吟殷岩泉, 栗深林兮惊层巅。

云青青兮欲雨, 水澹澹兮生烟。

列缺霹雳, 邱峦崩摧,

洞天石扇, 訇然中开;

青冥浩荡不见底, 日月照耀金银台。

霓为衣兮风为马, 云之君兮纷纷而来下;

虎鼓瑟兮鸾回车。 仙之人兮列如麻。

忽魂悸以魄动, 怳惊起而长嗟。

惟觉时之枕席, 失向来之烟霞。

世间行乐亦如此, 古来万事东流水。

君去兮何时还? 且放白鹿青崖间。

须行即骑访名山, 安能摧眉折腰事权贵,

使我不得开心颜?

 

TIANMU MOUNTAIN ASCENDED IN A DREAM

Li Bai

 

A seafaring visitor will talk about Japan,

Which waters and mists conceal beyond approach;

But Yueh people talk about Heavenly Mother Mountain,

Still seen through its varying deeps of cloud.

In a straight line to heaven, its summit enters heaven,

Tops the five Holy Peaks, and casts a shadow through China

With the hundred-mile length of the Heavenly Terrace Range,

Which, just at this point, begins turning southeast.

...My heart and my dreams are in Wu and Yueh

And they cross Mirror Lake all night in the moon.

And the moon lights my shadow

And me to Yan River --

With the hermitage of Xie still there

And the monkeys calling clearly over ripples of green water.

I wear his pegged boots

Up a ladder of blue cloud,

Sunny ocean half-way,

Holy cock-crow in space,

Myriad peaks and more valleys and nowhere a road.

Flowers lure me, rocks ease me. Day suddenly ends.

Bears, dragons, tempestuous on mountain and river,

Startle the forest and make the heights tremble.

Clouds darken with darkness of rain,

Streams pale with pallor of mist.

The Gods of Thunder and Lightning

Shatter the whole range.

The stone gate breaks asunder

Venting in the pit of heaven,

An impenetrable shadow.

...But now the sun and moon illumine a gold and silver terrace,

And, clad in rainbow garments, riding on the wind,

Come the queens of all the clouds, descending one by one,

With tigers for their lute-players and phoenixes for dancers.

Row upon row, like fields of hemp, range the fairy figures.

I move, my soul goes flying,

I wake with a long sigh,

My pillow and my matting

Are the lost clouds I was in.

...And this is the way it always is with human joy:

Ten thousand things run for ever like water toward the east.

And so I take my leave of you, not knowing for how long.

...But let me, on my green slope, raise a white deer

And ride to you, great mountain, when I have need of you.

Oh, how can I gravely bow and scrape to men of high rank and men of high office

Who never will suffer being shown an honest-hearted face!

 

 

将以下文言文翻译成英文:

1.人非生而知之者,然学而知之者也。

2.生而知之则圣人,非常人。

3.惘而不学,岂非下品邪?

4.孟志方?其人,诚而不诩。

5.吴侯所言胡之于吾国,乃友邦也,诚乎?

6.郡主其幸与不幸耶?

7.守株待兔而得,何其偶然。

8.守株待兔者,宋之农人也。

9.守株待兔,得一为幸,再者则难期。

10.偶得一兔于株前,妄守而候其继者,何其谬也。

11.为此者,必宋之农人也。

12.吴侯尚能妻其女于胡之可汗。

 

1. I am not a man who was born enlightened, but I am a man who has to study and then know it

2. to be born enlightened is indeed divine, but not human

3. to be perplexed but still do not study, is thus the lowest category?

4. Meng Zhifan the person is just one who did not boast his merits

5. is what Duke Wu said “ Hu is to us a fraternal country” honest?

6. was the Duke’s daughter lucky or unlucky?

7. to get a rabbit that dashed itself against the stump and died is sheer coincidence

8. the one who got a rabbit that dashed itself against the stump and died was one ploughman of the Song.

9. to get one rabbit by the stump might be easy; to get one more, is indeed difficult

10. the guy who got one rabbit by the stump now wanted to get one more, isn’t this ridiculous

11. the one who did this must be the ploughman of the Song

12. Duke Wu himself is also the one who married his daughter to the chieftain of Hu.

 

 

将以下古文翻译成英文:不积跬步,无以至千里;不积小流,无以成江海。——战国?荀子《劝学篇》

 

问题补充:白话文应该是,如果不一步一步地走,是不可能走完千里的路途,如果没有一条一条的小溪集合,是不能汇流成江河湖海的。

A journey of thousands of miles may not be achieved through accumulation of each single step, just as the enormous ocean may not be formed gathering every brook or stream.

 

Quoted from the Chapter Advice on Studying in the Classic Canon Tzu/Xun Zi(21) by Xun Kuang(荀况) during the Warring States period in ancient China.

 

 

将下面古文翻译成英文 尊贤使能,俊杰在位。 ——战国?孟子《孟子》

问题补充:白话文应该是,尊重有道德的人,使用有能力的人,杰出的人物都有合适的位置。

Respecting those noble men(君子) and appointing works/jobs(21) for those talented persons, thus each talent shall be afforded an appropriate post for him.

 

Quoted from the Classic Canon of Menci/Mencius by Meng Ke(孟轲) during the Warring States period in ancient China

 

 

将一下古文翻译成英文友者,所以相有也。——战国?荀子《大略》

上下文系:匹夫不可以不慎取友.友者.所以相有也.道不同.何以相有也.

 

The word friend indicates sharing of interests (此处双关,一者有共同利益、二者有共同兴趣;所谓只有永远的利益,没有永远的朋友”——译者注), background, objectives to achieve and, most importantly, doctrine (hence Tao, the way of pursuing one's goals).

 

Quoted from Records of Believes entitled Great Strategies (或音译,Dalve) by Tzu (或:XunziXun Kuang,荀况) during the Warring States period in ancient China

 

 

将以下古文翻译成英文:知人者智,自知者明;胜人者力,自胜者强。——战国?老子《道德经》

 

The one who knows well about others is only a smart guy, whereas the one who understands himself is the sensible Solomon.

The one who could defeat others is just a strong man, whereas the one who could win over his evil in mind (心魔) himself is really a powerful one.

 

Quoted from the work as Tao Te Ching (或意译:Canon of Morality) by Lao-tse (或:LaoziLi Er,李耳) during the Warring States period in ancient China.

 

 

把这段英文文言文翻译成现代英语

问题补充:

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?

Thou art more lovely and more temperate:

Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,

And summer's lease hath all too short a date:

Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,

And often is his gold complexion dimm'd;

And every fair from fair sometime declines,

By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd

But thy eternal summer shall not fade

Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest;

Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade,

When in eternal lines to time thou growest:

So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,

So long lives this and this gives life to thee.

 

我该把你比拟做夏天的一天?

你比夏天更可爱,更温婉:

狂风会吹落五月的娇蕊吹落,

和夏季的又太短暂的日期租赁:

有时太热天上的眼睛照

他那金色的dimm'd;

从某个时候,每一个公平公正的下降,

被机缘或自然的代谢摧残

但你永恒的夏天不会褪色

不会失去你把所欠的公平占有;

死神夸口你在他的阴影里徘徊,

当你growest永恒的时间线:

只要人们能呼吸,眼睛看得见,

只要永存,并且赐给你生命。

 

Shall I compare you to a summer's day?

You are more lovely and more temperate:

Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,

And summer's lease has all too short a date:

Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,

And often is his gold complexion dimm'd;

And every fair from fair sometime declines,

By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd

But your eternal summer shall not fade

Nor lose possession of that fair you owest;

Nor shall Death brag you wander'st in his shade,

When in eternal lines to time you growest:

So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,

So long lives this and this gives life to you.

 

thee-you

thou-your

hath-has

好像是莎士比亚的十四行诗,网上有分析;

莎士比亚的罗密欧与朱丽叶的经典片段,向朱丽叶的告白,文学书上都有。

参考资料:

http://sunshineeurope.blog.163.com/blog/static/667760782006756128479

 

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